Texas Home Contractor is dedicated to providing the citizens of Texas with the highest quality Roofing products and craftsmanship available in the industry. Our Team is committed to achieving outstanding customer service, quality, beauty and functionality. As specialist in both residential and commercial roofing, we will help assist you in combining the best building products and installation procedures necessary to achieving maximum results for all of your roofing solutions. The roof repair and roof inspection division is directly overseen by the owner Michael Marohnic, who has over 40 years of construction experience. We also provide our customers with leak detection and emergency sealing of your roof. As a General Contractor, with experience in all aspects of residential and commercial construction, we can repair, or rebuild any part of your home or business to make it just like new.
We have a catastrophic damage division here at Texas Home Contractor that is the best in the business. Our company offers FREE hail, wind, hurricane and tornado roof inspections for residential homes and commercial businesses throughout Texas. Texas Home Contractor roof inspectors have the customer in mind at all times, our inspectors are properly trained and educated in finding any and all damage, on your roof, associated with these severe weather conditions. Since we are experts in the insurance claims process and have licensed adjusters on staff, we will act as your agent assisting you every step of the way. Our specialist will help you file your claim, meet with your insurance carrier’s claims adjuster, help point out specific areas of your roof that need attention and educate the adjuster on proper installation techniques and responsibilities of the insurance company. Once your claim has been approved we will install your roof with the highest quality products and craftsmanship available. We will take care of all the insurance paper work for you, giving you an awesome new roof, with one of the best warranties in the industry, along with a pleasurable and comfortable experience.
Hail Exposure and Damage
Often times, it takes a trained technician to process, evaluate and detect Wind and Hail damage on a roofing system. It seems that everyone will have a different assessment on the extent of the damage. The damage may be highly visible dents and tears to the shingle, or it can be almost undetectable indentations along with very small granule loss. In either case, even small amounts of damage can compromise the integrity of the material and cause premature deterioration. If the shingle has exterior damage it may compromise the underlying components to a certain degree. When Hail impacts a shingle, the strike force from the Hail stone may damage the granule surface in the top asphalt coating, which may loosen the granules causing premature separation. The granule surfacing is necessary to protect the shingle from ultraviolet radiation, caused by the sun. Once the granule surface is damaged the shingle will eventually deteriorate and expose the fiberglass substrate, which may cause a leak in the roofing system. When a roofing system suffers severe Hail damage, the fiberglass substrate may be physically broken compromising the integrity of the shingle. There is really no way to determine the extent of the damage on the shingle without visible damage. It may take months, or even years for a roofing system to expose outside damage caused by Hail. Under the terms of our Limited Warranty, there is no coverage for damage caused by hail or wind. If the shingle is damaged by hail or wind, the manufacturer will still continue to warranty the material against manufacturer’s defects. Look for the following conditions when evaluating Hail and Wind damage:
Tears in the Shingle – Tears are rips and creases in the shingle. They are usually found on 3-tab systems, hips, ridges, sides and edges of the shingle.
Indentations in the Shingle – Indentations can be large impact round or half-moon shaped. Small indentations may expose granule loss and require the technician to lightly rub their hand over the shingle to feel the indentations. It may require the technician to lift the shingle so they can feel the backside for any irregularities.
Excessive Granule Loss – May expose the fiberglass membrane and be an indicator of possible damage. Accelerated granule loss will significantly reduce the life of the shingle.
Other Collateral Damage:
All Hailstones are different and vary in size, shape and hardness. They will create a distinct pattern of dents and depressions consisting of various sizes, shapes and depths. If you have any further questions regarding hail and wind damage, contact your homeowner’s insurance carrier and/or the experts at Texas Home Contractor.
For most homeowners, their home is their single most expensive investment, be sure, before you hire a contractor to do any work on your home, that he is licensed, when applicable, insured for your safety and experienced in the constructing procedures that they are undertaking. The roofing solutions provided by Texas Home Contractor are based on the needs of our customers, not the needs of our company. You may have a budget in mind, you may need the repair to sell or maintain your home, in any case, you can rest assured that the staff at Texas Home Contractor has your best interest at heart and we will tailor a work description and repair budget to insure that all your roofing problems are properly addressed and warrantied. We offer a 100% money back guarantee on any and all leak repairs that are not solved as promised. There is not a roof repair that is too complicated, too big or too small for us to handle for our clients.
Quality and craftsmanship are not just words, they are commitments. An organization must approach these commitments strategically and systematically through advanced education and training. That is why the staff at Texas Home Contractor works together as a team, to improve upon our process and to develop one of the best and brightest teams around.
Dry Rot and Termite Damage can become an expensive and overwhelming destructive force on your home. Untreated, it can grow like a cancer and destroy your asset, causing the homeowner severe anxiety and turmoil. Most homeowners are unaware that they even have roof damage or cause for concern. The specialists at Texas Home Contractor are experts in dry rot and termite damage repair. With decades of experience, not only will we repair and replace the infected wood, we will diagnose and determine where the problem has originated. Failure to find and diagnose the problem area will only insure that this problem will be constant. Once our leak detection experts have investigated your roof and revealed the problem area, we will properly flash-in and repair your roof to insure that this problem will not occur again. We will install the proper species of wood, prime it to insure longevity, fasten it with non-corruptible fasteners and insure it with the best warranty in the business, offering a 100% money back guarantee. We are here to protect you.
What to know during the construction of your new roof:
Scheduling your Project: After we have engaged into a contract, we will contact you to arrange a convenient date and time to install your new roof. If you would like to request a specific date, please call our office at 888-804-7775. We will call to inform you of both delivery and start dates. In the event we are unable to reach you we will leave a message on your answering machine or with the person who answers the phone.
Weather Conditions: Occasionally your project may be delayed due to bad weather conditions. If we feel bad weather may be imminent, we will notify you of schedule changes. Our installation crews are fully prepared in case the weather should turn bad unexpectedly during the installation of your project. The crews will seal your roof, with visqueen, to prevent water from entering your home and we will resume work as soon as the weather permits.
Delivery: The material for your project will be delivered on a large truck by a local shingle supply warehouse. The driver will use a forklift to unload the pallets off the truck. The sales representative will ask you where you want your roofing materials placed on your property. Please notify us 24 hours prior to delivery of any changes in your delivery.
Communications: Please call your sales representative, or the office at 888-804-7775, if you have any questions or concerns during your roofing project. Even though our office hours are Monday-Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. we will answer your call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Advertising: If you allow us to place a company sign in your yard, which helps us with our advertising, we will give you a credit towards your roofing project.
Shingles & Other Materials: There will be shingles, starter strip, roofing felt, valley flashing, roofing nails, roof jacks and flashing metal delivered to your home. We will place these materials in a convenient spot, of your choosing, on your property.
Wiring, Plumbing and Air Conditioning: Any electrical, plumbing, telephone, security, air conditioning or other service lines, according to F.H.A. standards should not be installed within 3 inches of the roof deck. The sales representative will inspect the roof and notify you if any such lines currently exist. We cannot and will not be held responsible for the puncture of improperly installed lines within 3 inches of the roof deck.
Light Fixtures, Mirrors & Pictures: It is the homeowners’ responsibility to insure that these items are securely attached to your walls and ceilings. If you feel that they may become unattached during the installation process, PLEASE take them down. Sometimes small cracks or crows feet will appear in older plaster or in cases were the attic space between the sheetrock and plywood is very minimal. These problems are often caused by the vibrations of the hammer and are often unavoidable. We cannot assume responsibility for these damages, since there is no way of controlling or stopping these problems from occurring.
Tear Off: During Tear-Off, existing roofing materials have a tendency to fall between the decking materials on your roof, (especially on skip sheeting) into your attic. It is the homeowners’ responsibility to cover any items in the attic which you think would require protection. Even though there will be a thorough clean-up of the exterior of your home, we can only pick up approximately 98% of the nails that fall around the area. Mowing the yard prior to the roof installation will help maximize the amount of nails that the magnet will pick up.
Access: The homeowner will allow all Texas Home Contractor employees and Sub-Contractors access to their driveways and yard. In addition, the homeowner will permit Texas Home Contractor to use the homeowners’ electricity. If there are no exterior duplex receptacles available, we will run an extension cord through a window or under a door. In very rare cases, if the driveway was not built properly you might develop a crack or two when the materials are unloaded. If this happens, we cannot assume responsibility for the damages. This is a very rare occurrence but has been known to happen.
Trees and Shrubs: It is the homeowners’ responsibility to cut down or remove any obstructions that may detour us from completing the project. You may prefer to have the tree or trees trimmed professionally before we begin construction.
Chimney Flashing: If the chimney flashing cannot be waterproofed once work begins, an additional charge may be added to the contract price to replace the flashing or counter flashing unless otherwise stated in your contract. Sometimes on older homes the brick on the chimney or the cap on top of the chimney will settle and sometimes cause cracking which may cause leaking later on down the road if it is not already leaking. We can only assume liability for the flashing around the chimney that we change out. If we see a problem we will let you know immediately and inform you of your options and how we might be able to help you. As a standard, we change out both step flashing and counter flashing at the base of the chimney when we replace the roof whether it needs it or not.
Solar panels: Arrangements to remove solar panels from the roof are the sole responsibility of the homeowner unless otherwise stated in your contract.
Antennas: We remove and re-install antennas up to 20 feet in height, but we cannot be held liable for the old lead-in wire breaking. Satellite dishes will be reinstalled, but we cannot be held liable for reception. Sometimes you may need to have a repairman come out to realign your dish since our crews are not knowledgeable in this field.
Vents: Upon completion of your job, please check all interior connections of your furnace and hot water heater vent pipes. These pipes have a tendency to be dislodged when re-flashing the bases. Since these pipes exhaust carbon monoxide we strongly recommend having an HVAC certified contractor reconnect the pipes in the attic, we can help you take care of this.
Left over Material: Any leftover materials remain the property of Texas Home Contractor. We customarily over ship a small quantity to insure adequate supplies for our crews.
Project Inspection: Upon completion of the job, the roofing foreman, along with the salesperson or superintendent, will inspect the work and complete an inspection report. We ask that you meet with the foreman and salesperson to insure that you are 100% satisfied with the job.
Payment: The payment for your roof will be due upon completion of your job. If this is an insurance claims job, we will require the first check (ACV) from the insurance company at the signing of the contract. The remaining balance that includes your deductible will be due at the time of completion. If recoverable depreciation is withheld by the insurance company until the job is complete, we will require payment of the deductible upon completion of job. We will file with the insurance company to release the depreciation check. Once you have received the depreciation check, you will need to contact us so that we may make arrangements to collect the check. Once the job is paid in full you will receive the receipt and warranty papers for the job.
Warranty: Your new roof will be covered by two warranties:
Many Homeowners are unaware that the single most important element protecting their home from destruction is their roof. An improper or faulty roof may cause severe damage to framing timbers, insulation, drywall, paint, cause mold and mildew, which will increase bacteria, which may develop health issues and basically destroy the structure along with the safety of your family. It is quite evident to us as roofing specialist that we educate our potential customers. That is why we have developed Texas Home Contractor Roof Repair Terms and Definitions below:
ACV: (Actual Cash Value) This is calculated by your Replacement cash value(RCV) minus depreciation.
Adjuster: – A person who works for the insurance company.
Algae Discoloration: A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly called fungus growth.
American Method : Application of giant individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the rake. Shingles are applied with a 3/4-inch space between adjacent shingles in a course.
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with development of consensus standards, testing procedures and specifications.
Asphalt: A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacturing.
Asphalt Plastic Roofing Cement: An asphalt-based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D-4586. Sometimes known as roofers tar.
Attic: The open area above the ceiling and under the roof deck of a steep sloped roof.
Back Surfacing: Fine mineral matter applied to the back side of shingles to keep them from sticking.
Balanced System: A ventilation system where 50% of the required ventilating area is provided by vents located in the upper portion of the roof with the balance provided by under eave or soffit vents.
Base Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.
Battens: 1” x 2” x 4’ wood strips nailed to the roof, upon which a field tile. Metal panel are sometimes hung on battens as well but the battens for metal roofing panels are typically much larger.
Bird Stop: A clay or metal product used at the eave of a profile roof to stop birds from entering below the tile.
Blisters: Bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing after installation.
Brands: Airborne burning embers released from a fire.
Bridging: A method of reroofing with metric-sized shingles.
Broken Tiles: tiles installed on a roof surface that have broken to a point where they need to be replaced.
BoosterTile: Normally 3”-4” long tile strip used to lift up the cover tile. Sometimes it is used in boosting up field tile to create an authentic looking roof.
Built-up Roof: A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
Bundle: A package of shingles. There are 3, 4 or 5 bundles per square.
Butt Edge: The lower edge of the shingle tabs.
Caulk: To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
Cement: See Asphalt plastic roofing cement.
Chalk Line: A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
Class “A”: The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
Class “B”: Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
Class “C”: Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
Cathedral Ceiling: is a ceiling that follows the angle of the roof all the way up to the highest point towards to top of the roof. It has straight edges (not curved) unlike a vaulted ceiling. This feature in a room will make the room appear bigger and more open.
Clay Tile: Tile made from mostly clay a opposed to concrete or slate tile which is not made from clay. Clay tile is typically referred to as “Spanish Tile”.
Closed Cut Valley (asphalt shingles): A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed two inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.
Closed Cut Valley (tile roofs): Where tile(s) are cut to closely meet at the center of the valley metal.
Coating: A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.
Collar: Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.
Concealed Nail Method: Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.
Condensation: The change of water from vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.
Concrete Tile: Roofing tile made from concrete as opposed to clay or slate tile. Also sometimes known as ceramic tile.
Counter Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.
Counter Battens: Vertical furring strips running beneath and perpendicular to the horizontal tile batten, to allow drainage and air flow beneath the roof tile. Also known as strapping.
Course: A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
Coverage: Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e., single coverage, double coverage, etc.
Cracked Tiles: Tiles that on installed on roof surface that have developed small, thin cracks (or lines) in the tile itself. If the crack is not to severe the tile may be glue together with a tile adhesive.
Cricket: A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.
Cutout: The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.
Damper: An adjustable plate for controlling draft.Dead Load: A non-moving (static) rooftops load, such as mechanical equipment, air-conditioning units, and the roof deck itself.Deck: The surface installed over the supporting framing members to which the roofing is applied.
Deductible – The amount of your financial responsibility when a claim has been paid by your insurance company. The amount can be found in your declarations page in your insurance policy.
Dimensional Shingle: Most dimensional shingles are metric in size. The values have been changed to inches for clarity. If they aren’t metric, then their measurements are like those of standard 3-tab strip shingles which is 36″ by 12″ with a 5″ exposure or so. Most dimensional shingles are two pieces of material laminated together. Nailing on the nail line is a must because it is very important that the nails penetrate both pieces of material. With most dimensional shingles there is only about a 3/4″ wide strip where both materials are laminated together. This is considered the nailing line.
Displaced Tiles: These are tiles that were not originally nailed in place and they have since out of place.
Dormer: A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.
Double Coverage: Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least two inches wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.
Downspout: A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.
Drip Edge: A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.
Duraridge: Is a class “B” roofing product that is installed on asphalt composition roof at the hips and ridge (peaks). The problem with Duraridge is that it is not a class “A” products and it always wears out much faster than the asphalt composition it is installed on top of. Hopefully you do not have Duraridge installed on your roof. If you do you will need to replace it.
Dutch Lap Method: Application of giant individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the eaves. Shingles are applied to overlap adjacent shingles in each course as well as the course below.
Eaves: The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof.
Eave Board: Is wood boards that are run along the roof edge that extend beyond the exterior walls of the home. These board are often on need of repair when they are found on older roofs that have not had the proper care and water proofing techniques used at the edge of the roof. The damage they get is typically dry rot damage or termite damage. If the eave board is damaged you may have damage fascia and rafter tails as well. You should consult a professional who specializes in this type of work.
Eaves Flashing: Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water back-up.
Eave Riser: A piece of metal user to elevate the starter course of tile to the appropriate height. It should have weep holes pre-drilled in it to let the water that naturally gets under most tile roof to drain out from under it hopefully into a gutter.
Edging Strips: Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for reroofing with asphalt shingles.
EG (Nails): ELECTROGALVANIZED – This method uses electricity and zinc anodes to put on a beautiful, shiny coating. The problem is that the coating is very then. The thin coating soon oxidizes away and allows rust to start. Many trade associations warn against using these nails in exterior applications. We recommend that when galvanized nails are specified for a project, ONLY HOT-DIPPED NAILS SHOULD BE USED. It doesn’t pay to skimp on the nails – since cheap nails that rust can be a real heartache down the line for the retailer, builder and home owner. If you want galvanized nails you need hot dipped nails (see hot dipped nails)
Ell: An extension of a building at right angles to its length.
Exposed Nail Method: Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.
Exposure I Grade Plywood: Type of plywood approved by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.
Fascia: A decorative board that conceals the lower ends rafters or the outer sides of a gable. Fascia is usually necessary for installing of gutters.
Feathering Strips: Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called horse feathers.
Felt: Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
Fiber Glass Mat: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from glass fibers.
Flashing: Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should be minimum 26-gauge.
Flashing Cement: See asphalt plastic roofing cement.
Flat Tile: is concrete tile made in the flat or “shake” looking profile. It is without curves and very flat looking.
FM: Factory Mutual Research Corp.
Free-tab Shingles: Shingles that do not contain factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Gable: The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.
Gable Roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end.
Gambrel Roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.
Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
General Contractor – A general contractor is licensed to work on more than one trade, for example roofing and siding or roofing and gutters.
Gutter: The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.
Gutter Apron – A metal strip that goes under the shingles and either over your eave or into the gutter.
Head Lap: Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.
HEX Shingles: Shingles that have the appearance of a hexagon after installation.
Hip: The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.
Hip Roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.
Hip Shingles: Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Horse Feathers: See feathering strips.
Hot Dipped Nails: are immersed in molten zinc – insuring that each nail gets a thick, uniform zinc coating. Hot-dip galvanizing prevents corrosion by coating steel with zinc. The galvanized coating is metallurgically bonded to the underlying steel, forming an impervious barrier between the steel substrate and the corrosive environment. The hot-dip galvanized coating also preferentially corrodes to protect the fastener’s underlying steel and is able to protect small areas of the fastener’s steel that may become exposed when mechanically damaged. Hot-dip galvanizing is the most effective method for delivering both long-term barrier protection and cathodic protection.
Ice Dam: Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.
Interlocking Shingles: Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.
Ice and Water Shield – A water proof membrane that adheres to the deck of your roof.
Laminated Shingles: Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles.
Lap: To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.
Lap Cement: Asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing.
Lightweight Roofing Tile: Roof tile of a mass/unit area weight of less than 9lbs per square foot of installed weight excluding all other roofing components.
Low Slope Application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between two and four inches per foot.
Louver: A slanted opening for ventilation.
Mansard Roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.
Manufacturer Warranty – You have a warranty on the product used, this is given by the manufacturer. This guarantees the product against manufacturer defects. Typically, after five years, the manufacturer warranty is pro-rated, even if it has a 50-year warranty. We have rarely seen any manufacturer defects in our experiences.
Masonry Primer: An asphalt-based primer used to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with other asphalt products.
Mastic: See asphalt plastic roofing cement.
Mineral Stabilizers: Finely ground limestone, slate, trap rock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.
Mineral-Surfaced Roofing: Asphalt shingles and roll roofing that are covered with granules.
M tile: is concrete tile that has two small humps in the center of it. When the tile it place on its end it resembles the letter “m” hence the name M tile. Also sometimes known as low-rise tile.
Mortar: Concrete mixed and made on the jobsite for use with tile roofs. Used very similarly as grout for a tile floor.
Nailer Board/Stringer: A piece of wood or other material of proper height and length, attached to a roof at a hip or ridge intersection used to allow for proper support and means of attachment for hip and ridge tiles. They can also be used in pan and cover tile for proper support (also known as a vertical stringer)
Natural Ventilation: A ventilation system utilizing ventilators installed in openings in the attic and properly positioned to take advantage of natural air flow to draw hot summer or moist winter air out and replace it with fresh outside air.
Nesting: A method of reroofing with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of the existing shingle tab.
Net Free Area: Area unobstructed by screens, louvers or other materials.
No-Cutout Shingles: Shingles consisting of a single, solid tab with no cutouts.
Non-Veneer Panel: Any wood based panel that does not contain veneer and carries an APA span rating, such as wafer board or oriented strand board.
Normal Slope Application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.
Open Valley (asphalt composition): Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.
Open Valley (Tile Roofs): Where tile(s) are cut away from the center of the valley in order to expose the trough area of the valley metal.
Organic Felt: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
Overhang: That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
Overlaying – To put an additional layer of shingles on top of your existing roof.
Pallets: Wooden platforms used for storing and shipping bundles of shingles.
Pan Tile: This refers to a piece of tile used in a 2-piece tile roof system that while consist of tops and pans. Pan tiles catch the water and direct them off the roof and top tiles shed the water off onto the pan tiles. These tiles are typically tapered.
Pitch: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.
Plastic Cement: A compound used to seal flashings and in some cases to seal down shingles as well as for other small waterproofing jobs. Where plastic cement is required for sealing down shingles, use a dab about the size of a quarter unless otherwise specified.
Ply: The number of layers of roofing: i.e. one-ply, two-ply.
Public Adjuster – A person who works for you. Generally, they are involved when you have an extensive amount of damage to your home or property.
PWI – (Payment When Incurred) This is a line item on your insurance adjustment. It usually has to do with tearing off the existing roof. When PWI is in your insurance adjustment, it is an option. The insurance company is telling you how much they will pay for doing a particular type of work.
Quick-Setting Cement: Asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below. Also used to adhere roll roofing laps applied by the concealed nail method.
Racking: Roofing application method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the roof rather than across and up. Not a recommended procedure.
Rafter: The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.
Rake: The inclined outer edge of a sloped roof that extends over a wall from the eave up to the ridge.
Rake Tile: A roofing tile accessory used to cover the edge of the roof where the field tile terminates at a rake section of the roof.
Random-Tab Shingles: Shingles on which tabs vary in size and exposure.
RCV – (Replacement Cost Value) This is determined by your local prices for construction. Most policies have an endorsement for this, meaning your insurance company will pay for the full replacement cost. Check your policy, it will be on the endorsements page.
Recoverable Depreciation – This is determined by the RCV minus the ACV. Your adjuster will figure how much it costs to repair or replace your property. For example a roof that costs $5,000.00, usually has a life of 25 years. The roof has been on the house for 10 years. The adjuster will depreciate the roof 40%. So he will pay you an ACV of $3,000.00, holding back $2,000.00 until you get the roof done. If you do not use all of the $2,000.00, the insurance company will keep the difference. If you don’t have the roof replaced, you can keep the $3,000.00, but remember your roof is no longer insured.
Release Tape: A plastic or paper strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and need not be removed for application.
Ridge: The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Ridge Shingles: Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Rise: The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.
Roll Roofing: Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
Roof Certification: There is no standard definition for a Roof Certification. You could probably talk to ten different Roofing Contractors about the meaning of a Roof Certification and you will get ten different answers. A Roof Certification is, loosely, a written opinion issued by a Licensed Roofing Contractor to certify that a roof is free of defects and should perform as designed for a certain period of time. The Roof Certification period is usually for 1 or 2 years and can be up to as many as 5 years. But, be very careful, a Roof Certification is not always a Roof Warranty against future roof leaks. Unless you have done business with a certain Roofing Contractor, you will need to know what their Roof Certification is all about, and what is included in, or excluded from, their Roof Certification.
Roof Inspection: A Roof Inspection is an inspection performed by a professional Roofing Company to determine the current condition of the roof. After a Roof Inspection is performed, a detailed Roof Report is provided which describes any current roofing conditions that need to be corrected and any preventative maintenance to prevent a future roof problem from occurring. The Roof Report will provide options, from roof cleaning, roof maintenance, simple roof repairs, major roof repairs, roof restoration, or it may even recommend that a complete roof replacement is necessary. A Roofing Contractor is able to charge a fee for a Roof Inspection because they are providing a Roof Report which goes beyond providing a simple Roof Repair Estimate. A Roofing Contractor will typically charge their customers up to $100 or more for the completion of a Roof Inspection and the issuance of the Roof Report.
A Roof Inspection and Roof Report are usually obtained when: purchasing a home as part of the buyer inspection process; when a seller is listing a property to be made aware of a roof problem that could affect their transaction; when a roof certification is required by a lender as a condition of loan funding; when a roof certification is required by a home owner insurance policy; or when a roof certification is required by a buyer, before closing on a property that they are purchasing, to make sure that the roof isn’t going to be a problem after they move into the home. The Roof Report will contain an estimate to repair current damage to the roof, preventative maintenance to prevent future damage to the roof, and an offer for a Roof Certification Leak Warranty that will warranty that the entire roof is free from leakage for the next 2 or 3 years.
Roofing tape: An asphalt-saturated tape used with asphalt cements for flashing and patching asphalt roofing.
Run: The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span.
Saturant: Asphalt used to impregnate an organic felt base material.
Saturated Felt: An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
Self-Sealing Cement: A thermal-sealing tab cement built into the shingle to firmly cement the shingles together automatically after they have been applied properly and exposed to warm sun temperatures. In warm seasons, the seal will be complete in a matter of days. In colder seasons, sealing time depends on the temperature and amount of direct sunlight hitting the shingles. Hand sealing with plastic cement should be done to ensure sealing in winter.
Self-Sealing Shingles: Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Self-Sealing Strip or Spot: Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.
Selvage: That portion of roll roofing overlapped by the succeeding course to obtain double coverage.
Shading: Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
Sheathing: Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.
Shed Roof: A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
Side Lap: refers to the end lap in any sort of roll roofing or felt. For instance the side laps for roofing felt should be over lapped a minimum of 12” for composition roofing and 2 feet for tile roofing. In regards to roof repair the side laps in not properly done will leak down the road. That is why many contractors feel that a tile roof repair is simply a patch or band aid type of repair. What many roofing contractors don’t know that is the side lap is properly done the repair can outlast the rest of the roof and would not be considered a patch or band aid but a permanent solution to a roof leak without completely replacing the whole roof.
Single Coverage: Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.
Slate Tile: roofing tiles that are specifically made from real slate rock. You should not mistake concrete or clay tile for slate tile. Slate tile is known for its heavy weight, durability, and high cost.
Slipped Tiles: These are tiles that were not originally nailed in place and they have since out of place.
Slope: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
Smooth-Surfaced Roofing: Roll roofing that is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules (coated).
Soffit: The finished underside of the eaves.
Soil Stack: A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.
Space Sheeting: Sheeting boards or battens, which a fastened directly to the rafters or framing boards, with gaps or spaces between them and is used in lieu of a solid sheeting.
Span: The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.
Specialty Eaves Flashing Membrane: A self-adhering, waterproofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind driven rain.
Square: A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
Square-Tab Shingles: Shingles on which tabs are all the same size and exposure.
Standard Weight Roofing Tile: Roof tile with a installed weight of 9lbs per square foot or greater not including all other roofing components.
Starter Strip: Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
Starter Tile: The first course of tile that located at the bottom edge of the tile roof. Also known as the first course of cover tile for a two piece clay or mission tile. Usually much shorter than the field tile.
Steep Slope Application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.
Step Flashing: Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.
S Tile: is concrete tile that has a very distinct curve in the middle of the tile. If you stand it on its end it looks like the letter “s” hence the name S tile.
Strip Shingles: Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide.
Sub-Contractors – Many times when you use a general contractor they will use sub-contractors to do some of the work. This is typical and most of the time has more to do with paperwork than anything else.
Tab: The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.
Talc: See back surfacing.
Telegraphing: A shingle distortion that may arise when a new roof is applied over an uneven surface.
Three-Dimensional Shingles: See laminated shingles.
Three-Tab Shingle: The most popular type of asphalt shingle usually 12″ x 36″ in size with three tabs.
Tile Adhesive: glue specifically made for bonding pieces of roofing tile together. This can be used on pieces of tile with small cracks or lines in them to keep them from coming apart.
Tile Pan Metal: This is a accessory piece of metal used where a tile roof terminates into a vertical side wall. The metal catches the water run-off from the vertical and keeps it from getting under the tile roof and eventually directs the water back on top of the tile roof even though it is installed under the tile. It comes in different widths and a 6” width is better than a 4” wide piece of tile pan.
Top Lap: That portion of the roofing covered by the succeeding course after installation.
Tri-Laminate Shingle: is three layer laminated shingle composed of multiple thicknesses of coated and surfaced fiberglass mat, cut and bonded together in different patterns. The weather side is surfaced with mineral roofing granules, and the back side is surfaced with a mineral release agent. They are known be being the thickest shingles on the market and their lifetime warranty. They were first made popular by Certainteed with their Presidential TL shingles. TL standing for Tri-Laminate. Since the popularity of the Presidential TL shingles many other manufactures have copied the idea with their own version of the Presidential TL shingles.
UL: Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
UL Label: Label displayed on packaging to indicate the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing.
Under Eave: Underside area of the overhang at the eave of the roof.
Underlayment: A layer of asphalt saturated (sometimes referred to as tar paper) which is laid down on a bare deck before shingles are installed to provide additional protection for the deck.
Valley: The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes to provide water runoff.
Vapor Retarder: Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor. Material which, when installed on the high vapor pressure (warm in winter) side of a material, retards the passage of moisture vapor to the lower pressure (cold in winter) side. Note exception: Florida and Gulf Coast. Check local building codes to determine what side the vapor retarder should be placed.
Vaulted Ceiling: is a ceiling that is curved up towards the top of the highest point towards to top of the roof. This feature in a room will make the room appear bigger and more open.
Vent: Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
Vent Sleeve: See collar.
Ventilators: Devices that eject stale air and circulates fresh air (i.e., ridge, roof, gable, under eave, foundation or rafter vents and vented soffit panels.)
Workmanship Warranty – This is given by your contractor on the installation of the product. After you have work done you need to check out everything and have any problems fixed immediately. After the first year of exterior home repairs, there are almost no problems that will occur.
Woven Valley: Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.
National Roofing Contractors Association
The National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) is pleased to provide you with this information as part of our ongoing effort to educate home and building owners about roofing and roofing contractors.
We hope this information will make you a more knowledgeable consumer and, when the time comes, a smart roof system buyer.
A new roof system is a big investment. We want to help you get a quality roof system at a fair price from a professional roofing contractor.
William A. Good, CAE
Executive Vice President
National Roofing Contractors Association
Roof System Components
All steep-slope roof systems (i.e., roofs with slopes of 25 percent or more) have five basic components:
Choosing a Roof System
There are a number of things to consider when selecting a new roof system. Of course, cost and durability head the list, but aesthetics and architectural style are important, too. The right roof system for your home or building is one that balances these five considerations. The following roofing products commonly are used for steep-slope structures.
Asphalt shingles possess an overwhelming share of the U.S. steep-slope roofing market and can be reinforced with organic or fiberglass materials. Although asphalt shingles reinforced with organic felts have been around much longer, fiberglass-reinforced products now dominate the market.
Asphalt shingles’ fire resistances, like most other roofing materials, are categorized by Class A, B or C. Class A signifies the most fire-resistant; Classes B and C denote less fire resistance. Generally, most fiberglass shingles have Class A fire ratings, and most organic shingles have Class C ratings.
A shingle’s reinforcement has little effect on its appearance. Organic and fiberglass products are available in laminated (architectural) grades that offer a textured appearance. Zinc or copper-coated ceramic granules also can be applied to organic or fiberglass products to protect against algae attack, a common problem in warm, humid parts of the United States. Both types of shingles also are available in a variety of colors.
Regardless of their reinforcing type and appearance, asphalt shingles’ physical characteristics vary significantly. When installing asphalt shingles, NRCA recommends use of shingles that comply with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards-ASTM D 225 for organic shingles and ASTM D 3462 for fiberglass shingles. These standards govern the composition and physical properties of asphalt shingles; not all asphalt shingles on the market comply with these standards. If a shingle product complies with one of these standards, it is typically noted in the manufacturer’s product literature and on the package wrapper.
Wood shingles and shakes are made from cedar, redwood, southern pine and other woods; their natural look is popular in California, the Northwest and parts of the Midwest. Wood shingles are machine sawn; shakes are handmade and rougher looking. A point to consider: Some local building codes limit the use of wood shingles and shakes because of concerns about fire resistance. Many wood shingles and shakes only have Class C fire ratings or no ratings at all. However, Class A fire ratings are available for certain wood shingle products that incorporate a factory-applied, fire-resistant treatment.
Tile —clay or concrete—is a durable roofing material. Mission and Spanish-style round-topped tiles are used widely in the Southwest and Florida, and flat styles also are available to create French and English looks. Tile is available in a variety of colors and finishes. Tile is heavy. If you are replacing another type of roof system with tile, you will need to verify that the structure can support the load.
Slate is quarried in the United States in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia. It is available in different colors and grades, depending on its origin. Considered virtually indestructible, it is, however, more expensive than other roofing materials. In addition, its application requires special skill and experience. Many old homes, especially in the Northeast, still are protected by this long-lasting roofing material.
Metal, primarily thought of as a low-slope roofing material and has been found to be a roofing alternative for home and building owners with steep-slope roofs. There are two types of metal roofing products: panels and shingles. Numerous metal panel shapes and configurations exist. Metal shingles typically are intended to simulate traditional roof coverings, such as wood shakes, shingles and tile. Apart from metal roofing’s longevity, metal shingles are relatively lightweight, have a greater resistance to adverse weather and can be aesthetically pleasing. Some have Class A fire ratings.
Synthetic roofing products simulate various traditional roof coverings, such as slate and wood shingles and shakes. However, they do not necessarily have the same properties.
Before making a buying decision, NRCA recommends that you look at full-size samples of a proposed product, as well as manufacturers’ brochures. It also is a good idea to visit a building that is roofed with a particular product.
Ventilation and insulation are key
One of the most critical factors in roof system durability is proper ventilation. Without it, heat and moisture build up in an attic area and combine to cause rafters and sheathing to rot, shingles to buckle, and insulation to lose its effectiveness.
Therefore, it is important never to block off sources of roof ventilation, such as louvers, ridge vents or soffit vents, even in winter. Proper attic ventilation will help prevent structural damage caused by moisture, increase roofing material life, reduce energy consumption and enhance the comfort level of the rooms below the attic.
In addition to the free flow of air, insulation plays a key role in proper attic ventilation. An ideal attic has:
The requirements for proper attic ventilation may vary greatly, depending on the part of the United States in which a home or building is located, as well as the structure’s conditions, such as exposure to the sun, shade and atmospheric humidity. Nevertheless, the general ventilation formula is based on the length and width of the attic. NRCA recommends a minimum of 1 square foot of free vent area for each 150 square feet of attic floor—with vents placed proportionately at the eaves (e.g., soffits) and at or near the ridge.
Even roofs have enemies
A roof system’s performance is affected by numerous factors. Knowing about the following will help you make informed roof system buying decisions:
Choosing a Contractor
Purchasing a new roof system is an important investment. Before you spend your money, spend time learning how to evaluate roofing contractors. You should insist on working with a professional roofing contractor. NRCA wants to assist you in getting the kind of results you expect—a quality roof system at a fair price. All roofing contractors are not alike, and NRCA recommends that you prequalify roofing contractors to get the job done right the first time. The following guidelines will help you select a professional:
Commonly Asked Questions
Q: How can a home owner recognize when a roof system has problems?
A: All too often, roof system problems are discovered after leaking or other serious damage occurs. Periodic (twice-a-year) inspections often can uncover cracked, warped or missing shingles; loose seams and deteriorated flashings; excessive surface granules accumulating in the gutters or downspouts; and other visible signs of roof system problems. Indoors, look for cracked paint, discolored plasterboard and peeling wallpaper as signs of damaged roof areas.
Q: What are my options if I decide to reroof?
A: You have two basic options: You can choose a complete replacement of the roof system, involving a tear-off of your existing roof system, or re-cover the existing roof system, involving only the installation of a new roof system. If you’ve already had one re-cover installed on your original roof system, check with a professional roofing contractor. In many instances, building code requirements allow no more than one roof system re-cover before a complete replacement is necessary.
Q: My roof leaks. Do I need to have it replaced completely?
A: Not necessarily. Leaks can result from flashings that have come loose or a section of the roof system being damaged. A complete roof system failure, however, generally is irreversible and a result of improper installation or choice of materials or the roof system installation is inappropriate for the home or building.
Q: Can I do the work myself?
A: Most work should not be done yourself. Professional roofing contractors are trained to safely and efficiently repair or replace roof systems. You can damage your roof system by using improper roofing techniques and severely injure yourself by falling off or through the roof.
Maintenance performed by home and building owners should be confined to inspecting roof systems during the fall and spring to check for cracked or curling shingles and cleaning gutters filled with dead leaves and other debris. If you must inspect your roof system yourself, use a firmly braced or tied-off ladder equipped with rubber safety feet. Wear rubber-soled shoes and stay on the ladder (and off the roof system), if possible.
Q: How long can I expect my roof system to last?
A: Most new roof systems are designed to provide useful service for about 20 years. Some roof system types, such as slate, clay tile and certain metal (e.g., copper) systems, can last longer.
Actual roof system life span is determined by a number of factors, including local climatic and environmental conditions, proper building and roof system design, material quality and suitability, proper application and adequate roof maintenance.
Roofing product manufacturers offer a variety of warranties on their products. Take a close look at those warranties to see what responsibilities and financial obligations manufacturers will assume if their products fail to reach their expected lives.
Q: What will a new roof system cost?
A: The price of a new roof system varies widely, depending on such things as the materials selected, contractor doing the work, home or building, location of the home or building, local labor rates and time of year. To get a good idea of price for your roof system, get three or four proposals from reputable contractors in your area. Keep in mind that price is only one factor, and it must be balanced with the quality of the materials and workmanship.
For each roofing material, there are different grades and corresponding prices. There also are a variety of styles and shapes. You need to look at the full product range and make a choice based on your budget and needs.
Within the roofing profession, there are different levels of expertise and craftsmanship. Insist on a contractor who is committed to quality work.
Q: How can I determine my annual roofing cost?
A: When considering your roofing options, the following formula may help:
Total Cost (Materials and Labor) ÷ Life Expectancy of Roof System (in years) = Annual Roofing Cost
Terms you should know
Deck/sheathing: The surface, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), to which roofing materials are applied.
Dormer: A small structure projecting from a sloped roof, usually with a window.
Drip edge: An L-shaped strip (usually metal) installed along roof edges to allow water run off to drip clear of the deck, eaves and siding.
Eave: The horizontal lower edge of a sloped roof.
Fascia: A flat board, band or face located at a cornice’s outer edge.
Felt/underlayment: A sheet of asphalt-saturated material (often called tar paper) used as a secondary layer of protection for the roof deck.
Fire rating: System for classifying the fire resistances of various materials. Roofing materials are rated Class A, B or C, with Class A materials having the highest resistance to fire originating outside the structure.
Flashing: Pieces of metal used to prevent the seepage of water around any intersection or projection in a roof system, such as vent pipes, chimneys, valleys and joints at vertical walls.
Louvers: Slatted devices installed in a gable or soffit (the underside of eaves) to ventilate the space below a roof deck and equalize air temperature and moisture.
Oriented strand board (OSB): Roof deck panels (4 by 8 feet) made of narrow bits of wood, installed lengthwise and crosswise in layers, and held together with a resin glue. OSB often is used as a substitute for plywood sheets.
Penetrations: Vents, pipes, stacks, chimneys-anything that penetrates a roof deck.
Rafters: The supporting framing to which a roof deck is attached.
Rake: The inclined edge of a roof over a wall.
Ridge: The top edge of two intersecting sloping roof surfaces.
Sheathing: The boards or sheet materials that are fastened to rafters to cover a house or building.
Slope: Measured by rise in inches for each 12 inches of horizontal run: A roof with a 4-in-12 slope rises 4 inches for every foot of horizontal distance.
Square: The common measurement for roof area. One square is 100 square feet (10 by 10 feet).
Truss: Engineered components that supplement rafters in many newer homes and buildings. Trusses are designed for specific applications and cannot be cut or altered.
Valley: The angle formed at the intersection of two sloping roof surfaces.
Vapor retarder: A material designed to restrict the passage of water vapor through a roof system or wall.
SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
American Society of Home Inspectors
932 Lee Street, Suite 101
Des Plaines, IL 60016
Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association
4041 Powder Mill Road, Suite 404
Calverton, MD 20705
Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau
P.O. Box 1178
Sumas, WA 98295-1178
Metal Construction Association
104 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 1500
Chicago, IL 60603
National Association of Home Builders
1201 15th St. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
National Association of the Remodeling Industry
4900 Seminary Road, Suite 320
Arlington, VA 22203
National Tile Roofing Manufacturers Association
P.O. Box 40337
Eugene, OR 97404-0049
NRCA Consumer Advisory Bulletins
Roofing Qualification Statement as suggested by NRCA is a form home and building owners should ask prospective roofing contractors to complete and submit with proposals. The form asks for information about contractors’ companies, work in progress, references, finances and insurance.
The NRCA Asphalt Shingle Manual presents guidelines for asphalt shingle roofing. It addresses application techniques, construction details, general requirements and precautions.
The NRCA Steep Roofing Manual presents guidelines for steep-slope roofing, including asphalt shingles, wood shakes and shingles, slate, and clay and concrete tile. It addresses application techniques, construction details, general roofing requirements and precautions.
The NRCA Steep-Slope Roofing Materials Guide is a comprehensive, 230-page report about steep-slope products, including asphalt shingles, fiber-cement roof components, metal roof components, clay tile, concrete tile, slate and synthetic roof components. It contains detailed descriptions, comparative data, manufacturer-reported wind and fire ratings, and code approvals.
For a free NRCA catalog of publications and audiovisual programs or to purchase any of these publications, visit NRCA’s Virtual Store or contact NRCA’s Infoexpress customer service team at (866) ASK-NRCA (275-6722) or e-mail at email@example.com .
(800) USA-ROOF is a service offered by NRCA to help home and building owners locate professional roofing contractors in specific geographic areas. Owners are sent, free of charge, a computerized list of NRCA-contractor members sorted by zip code, a listing of local and regional NRCA affiliate organizations, and information that describes common roof systems and general roofing terminology. To receive this information, home and building owners should call 1 (800) USA-ROOF. Please allow at least two weeks for delivery.
Lists of NRCA-contractor members in specific geographic areas, can be obtained from NRCA’s online ” Membership directory “. Contractors can be selected by state, area code or zip code.
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